Morphological and functional features of the child’s body change in regular dynamics until maturity. The most intensive changes in growth and development are observed for up to 12 months. Growth processes slow down slightly after a year but do not stop.
The child’s body is relatively perfect at each particular age. This is a complex system in which the foundations of the health of the future adult are laid. An adequate assessment of the physical and mental development of the child at different stages of ontogenesis is very important.
You need to be able to correctly compare the different indicators of your child’s vital activity with the standards of his age group. You need to have a lot of information. We have collected for you all the most important data for each age of the child.
18 Month Baby Development
The growth rate of a child in the second year of life is significantly reduced. Intensive growth processes are now being replaced by cellular differentiations. Such changes provide qualitative changes in the properties of the child’s body. The baby gradually grows up, acquiring the body like a mature person.
Body proportions visually change by 18 months. The kid is growing up. The head of the child decreases proportionally and the limbs lengthen. Changes in the main parameters of the development of the child are noticeable.
It's The Size of
Based on length and size of a baby at 10 weeks pregnancy we can compare it to strawberry.
It does not feel like anything yet inside your belly, but structure is there and soon enough it will grow big.
How Heavy is it?
0.15 oz ~ 4 gr
Bone structure and enlargement of head has made our baby at least to double in weight between week 9 and 10.
Slowly growing baby fetus is now at 4 grams or 0.15 ounces. Keep in mind that every baby weight during pregnancy is slightly different.
Your Baby is
3.2 CM or 1.25 Inch
It’s hard to measure baby inside your belly during such early development stage.
Overall night is just above one inch or 3 cm. The baby is not measured head to toe yet as it is in round position.
Baby parts development summary
The proportionality of the body in children changes in one and a half years. The size of the head becomes smaller relative to the size of the body. There is a harmonization of appearance. The back, limbs, and neck are visually stretched due to walking. The child acquires a more even posture and a confident musculoskeletal system.
The strengthening of the musculoskeletal framework continues. Teeth grow which causes a lot of anxiety to children and parents. Improving digestion and the work of the digestive tract is still happening. The necessary changes in the work of the organs of excretion, blood circulation, and respiration are manifested.
Heart and blood circulation – The main parameters of infancy are preserved. A high percentage is of blood relative to body weight. The number of hemoglobin increases. The stroke volume of the heart gradually increases. The heart rate remains high. Sympathetic regulation prevails.
Respiratory system – The respiratory system changes due to the anatomical transformations of the skeleton. It becomes chesty. This is due to the growth of the chest and the development of the intercostal muscles. The respiratory rate decreases by 35-40 cycles per minute.
Immune system – The second year of life is a critical period for immunity. The number of interactions with the environment increases. This exposes the body to new microorganisms. The effectiveness of immune reactions increases, but immunity is still weak.
Brain – There is further maturation of the cerebral cortex. This entails new structural and functional changes in the brain. The number of branches of basal dendrites increases. A clear organization of neurons is formed. The process of information processing becomes more complicated.
Digestion – The digestive system is not yet perfect. Mixed nutrition increases the load on the digestive tract. There is relatively low activity of the gastric glands. Few enzymes and hydrochloric acid. Digestion is not yet ready for the common table.
Excretory system – Urination becomes more reflexively fixed. The function of excretion develops by the growth of the proportions of the body. The kidneys are quite large, and their work is slightly more efficient, but still far from the level of an adult.
Your Baby Growth at 18 month
There is a noticeable decrease in the growth rate of all the main dimensional parameters of the child after the first year of life. Children of 18 months change a lot in appearance. A visual decrease in the volume of the head to the proportions of the body was noted. Now the head circumference of girls is 47 cm. This figure for boys of 18 months will be 48 cm.
The circumference of the chest is slightly larger in comparison with the circumference of the head. The chest circumference is considered normal in the following figures: boys – 49 cm, girls – 48 cm. The height of an 18-month-old child increased by an average of 6 cm compared to 12 months. Body weight increased by about 3.5 lb from 1 year to 1.5 years.
18 Month Old Baby Milestones
A child by 18 months develops more intensively in the mental, cognitive and emotional spheres. The number of motor skills and new skills is growing and becoming more complicated. The kid is already walking, which expands his view and access to new objects. He trains to perform more complex motor and mental tasks.
The general decline in growth rates favorably affects the mental pace of development. The child spends a lot of energy on cognitive activity, exploring new objects, processes, and patterns. The kid puts a new empirical experience in the brain and uses it in the future.
Mastering hand movements There is an active study of all movements. They become more focused and diverse. The level of new skills in processes is increasing. The kid can hold a fork and prick pieces of food from a plate with it without the help of an adult. He diligently and actively feeds himself porridge using a spoon.
The child tries to cut with scissors, wash himself with a sponge, and brush his teeth. These movements are still too complex for him and there is no effective performance.
Expansion of cognitive activity Significantly increase the child's ability to get acquainted with the environment. An important role in the expansion of knowledge is given to visual perception. Operations of identification and imprinting of objects are being developed.
A child at 18 months is able not only to identify specific objects but also their images. The kid can recognize the animal directly by seeing it in the zoo, in a picture, or the form of a silhouette.
Emotional activity A baby at a year and a half is not yet mentally mature enough. He is not able to get out of the tantrum on his own, which leads to prolonged crying and a wave-like outburst of emotions. There may be instability in the emotional sphere.
The child becomes very psyched if something does not work out for him. He may throw a toy, fall to the floor, and twitch his arms and legs to physically express his emotional discomfort. The child begins to get bored and show tenderness.
Development of speech There is a full-scale process of developing speech understanding and one's active speech. Comprehension is far ahead of mastering speech. Now the baby can learn about 100 words.
The initiative of verbal communication is increasing. Growing verbal intelligence. Children who began to speak early at this age already put words into small sentences.
Attention and implementation of "instructions" The child is more subject to education with the development of understanding of different intonations. He can be taught to do the simplest actions according to the “instructions”: put away toys, go to the toilet, wash his hands, and go to bed.
The kid listens attentively to what is said to him and analyzes what is said. He gradually establishes causal relationships and concludes. He knows the word "no" well. He rejoices in praise: "well done", "good", "clever".
Improving walking Walking is confident and independent. The baby is completely awake in movement, there is little in the sitting position, and practically does not lie. More complex movements appear in an upright position, running and jumping. The structure of these movements is still variable. The kid is still clumsy and often falls.
The kid is well-oriented when walking in a familiar space. He tends to be more careful but inquisitive in unfamiliar areas.
18 months is characterized by the appearance of a large number of new complex movements. The child grows physically and develops mentally. He is attentive and emotionally active. The kid expands the horizons of the world and increases the pace of cognitive activity.
Movements are improved in various processes. There is the intensive use of speech in communication and its complication. The vocabulary is replenished and it is easier for the child to communicate.
“Children don’t grow in a pattern. There are only certain norms of age, from which you should not deviate much.”
18 Month Old Baby Health
At 18 months, the DTap vaccine is administered if it has not yet been administered. The 3rd dose of IPV is still effective. The flu vaccine is given at 18 months. Two doses at least four weeks apart are recommended. It is effective for children aged 6 months to 8 years. Suitable for first-time flu vaccine recipients and some other children in this age group.
Two doses of the HepA vaccine are needed for continued protection. The first is administered from 12 to 23 months. The second dose should be administered 6 months after the first dose.
The chance of a child encountering pathogenic microflora increases significantly. Children 18 months of age are extremely sensitive to respiratory viral infections. Often there are problems with the setting of the foot. Many children walk on their toes. This needs to be corrected.
Sleeping Schedules at 18 Month
Sleep at 18 months is greatly affected by regression. There may be significant deterioration in sleep due to teething: restless awakenings, crying, and even night tantrums. Wake time increases. It becomes more difficult to put on a daytime sleep, but the regime stabilizes a little while keeping within the necessary limits.
The schedule establishes one permanent daytime sleep. Its duration can be from 1 to 2 hours. It all depends on a specific day, its saturation, and the physical activity of the child.
The time of wakefulness can reach up to 5-6 hours in a row.
The daily norm of sleep is within 12-14 hours. Sleep at night is greatly impaired due to teething. The baby spontaneously wakes up in pain. Can scream a lot and even go to play to get distracted.
Many factors can greatly shift the sleep schedule. Try to eliminate the causes of night anxiety in time. Regulate your child’s diet to eliminate increased gas formation. Consider pain relief for painful teething. Please consult your doctor first for advice on the right medication.
Use a flexible sleep schedule but stick to age-appropriate daily allowances. Do not remove sleep during the day. It’s too early now. Increased energy costs require a constant reboot of the brain. Sleep is a physiological need of the body.
18 Month Old Feeding
A child at the age of one and a half years is required to receive 1400–1500 kcal with food. The diet should contain a sufficient amount of animal protein, at least 75% of the total. Deficiency of vegetable fats is not allowed. Their number does not fall below 10%. A baby at this age needs to eat at least 4 times. 30-40% of the total daily food intake is lunch.
The menu for a child of 18 months includes breast milk or a mixture, meat dishes, vegetables and fruits, cereals, fish, butter, and vegetable oils. Children of this age should already eat black and even white bread, pasta, eggs, potatoes, cheese, cottage cheese, and yogurt. Dishes can be more complex: soup, casseroles, chops, soufflés, jelly, and stews. It is allowed to eat food cut into small pieces.
18 Month Old Baby Movements
The child walks well confidently orienting in space. He performs actions in the process and conquers various obstacles: stairs, armchairs, and chairs.
A year and a half is the time of a significant increase in physical activity. The variety of movements is expanding. In addition to the basic ones, sports movements and games appear. A significant increase in the number of independent actions of the child is the basis of his cognitive activity.
A child at 18 months learns to perform graphic actions in addition to good walking, running, jumping, and climbing on high surfaces. The baby firmly grasps the pen, pencil, or crayon in his palm. He enjoys the process of drawing without giving out any artistic masterpieces, but for a long time being carried away by these actions. Imitation continues in-game actions. A kid can parody a person, animal, or technique.
Safety Around Child
The kid diligently conquers new peaks. He can climb a balcony and even a ledge. A child can hide from his mother, get lost in the crowd, or fall somewhere into a pit or pool. The safety of the child is at stake.
The most relevant in ensuring the safety of an 18-month-old baby is the correct assessment of his physical abilities. Sometimes parents do not understand how much he has grown and what he can do.
Children of this age often receive numerous injuries to the limbs and even fractures. Children are not yet able to deliberately weigh the risks of taking specific actions.
An increased interest in everything the child sees increases the risk of absorption of chemicals, drugs, or foreign bodies.
In the backyard – Do not leave the baby unattended. Make sure that there are no sharp objects, open manholes, holes, or reservoirs on the site. Always securely close doors that lead to the street or driveway.
Dangerous objects in the house – If you have a cold or firearms, keep them in a safe and locked. Even a flare can seriously injure and even kill a child. Everything that is potentially dangerous must be out of reach.
Windows and balconies – Never leave balconies and windows open in the room where the child is. Curiosity will take over and the baby will conquer this territory. The risk of falling increases every year. Block windows and balcony doors.
Poisonous substances and drugs – Keep household chemicals, cosmetics, and medicines as far away from the child as possible. Put them on the top shelves. Cases of chemical poisoning are not uncommon among children 1 to 3 years of age.
Fireplaces, heating boilers, stoves – Anything that has a high temperature and opens fire is extremely dangerous for a child. The bright flame, the brilliance of the indicators, and the flashing light are very attractive to the baby. Remove such appliances from your home or install a fence.
In a public place – Don’t let your baby out on the playground unsupervised. Always be there and insure his safety. Don’t let yourself lose sight of him. The danger is everywhere: bad people, open manholes, ponds, cars.
What To Schedule Next
It’s time to socialize a 1.5-year-old baby. The first steps will be difficult. Plan to visit several kindergartens. Look at the territory, and read reviews about educators and teaching methods. Preschools are very different. It is better to choose the most suitable one in terms of remoteness and principles of education.
Schedule your flu vaccine before the cold and virus season if you haven’t already. Plan visits to highly specialized specialists in advance. Consult your pediatrician first if you have questions about your baby’s general health. He will redirect you to the right doctor.
Parents Tips and Development Speed Up
Your child is already an individual. He differs from others in his habits, character, and preferences in food and toys. Do not standardize its parameters and level of development to the norms of statistics. Be careful and be patient.
- Accept the child as he is – Not all children sleep well, eat and play on their own. Everyone has their characteristics of temperament, habits, and favorite things. Accept your child even if he is moody, lazy, or too active.
- Don’t treat your baby like an adult – Children will not soon become adults both physically and psychologically. They are prone to tantrums, crises, and frequent illnesses. Show parental patience and do not take responsibility for your actions on the baby.
- Train your child to be independent – Let the baby eat by himself while sitting at the table with his family. Do not deprive him of the opportunity to pull on a hat, tights, and a coat with boots. Let him show his independence in any business.
Increased cognitive activity, curiosity, and research activities require special attention and participation from parents. It is much easier for a child to learn a new skill or ability if he is shown a direction of activity. Children repeat rather than listen and do. So set an example. This development is the most efficient.
5 Ways to Speed Up Development
- Fine motor skills – Give small objects into the hands of the child and teach them how to use them.
- Colors and shapes – Use different ways to study colors and shapes: paints, felt-tip pens, cards, and toys.
- Difficult games – Practice games with stories by connecting the study of experienced emotions in life.
- Variety of physical activity – Connect new movements in games, sports, in everyday life.
- Social activity – Attend development groups and kindergarten for close contact with peers.
Communication with a child of 18 months is much more productive. He begins to understand the prohibitions and strict intonation of his parents. It is still difficult to accustom him to order and discipline, but dialogue and interaction are successfully conducted with him for learning.
Do not waste the precious moment to instill in your child a love of knowledge and learning. Engage with the child comprehensively developing his potential talents.