The development of the organism occurs in constantly changing conditions from birth to maturity. This process is characterized by an adaptive character. All systems and organs mature unevenly and not simultaneously. It depends on the significance of a particular organ in a certain period of ontogeny.
Ontogenetic development combines evolutionary and revolutionary stages of development. Revolutionary can be associated with both internal and external factors. Such periods are called critical crises.
5 years is one of the critical periods in the development of a child. We have collected all the most important information on this age to make it easier for parents to understand the development, care, and upbringing of 5-year-old children.
5 Year Baby Development
Changes in the proportions and growth rates of the body occur at 5 years of age. Weight gain and height are stable at this age. The child changes in appearance, acquiring a more adult appearance. Parts of the body are stretched and the shape of the face changes.
Internal transformations are no longer so impressive but continue according to the genetic and evolutionary plan. Let us consider in more detail the main features of the development of a child of 5 years.
It's The Size of
Based on length and size of a baby at 10 weeks pregnancy we can compare it to strawberry.
It does not feel like anything yet inside your belly, but structure is there and soon enough it will grow big.
How Heavy is it?
0.15 oz ~ 4 gr
Bone structure and enlargement of head has made our baby at least to double in weight between week 9 and 10.
Slowly growing baby fetus is now at 4 grams or 0.15 ounces. Keep in mind that every baby weight during pregnancy is slightly different.
Your Baby is
3.2 CM or 1.25 Inch
It’s hard to measure baby inside your belly during such early development stage.
Overall night is just above one inch or 3 cm. The baby is not measured head to toe yet as it is in round position.
Baby parts development summary at 5 years old
Stabilization of growth processes was recorded after 3 years. Body proportions change. Children visually become more elongated, and thin, with a narrow body and long limbs by the age of 5. There are slight gender differences in the constitution.
An increase in growth rate will be observed after 5 years. This is the so-called “half-height jump”. The limbs begin to grow faster than the trunk. Metabolic processes in a child change at the age of 5, and final transformations occur in the digestive system.
Respiratory system – The ribs grow and change their position. They change the shape of the chest by increasing in length. The front part gradually drops down. The nature of breathing changes (becomes chest-abdominal). The leading role in breathing is given to the intercostal muscles.
Bones of the skull – The fusion of parts of the ethmoid bone of the skull and the ossification of the auditory meatus is almost complete. The fusion between the parts of the occipital, main and frontal bones continues. Cartilaginous zones are still preserved between the bones of the skull for brain growth.
Spine – The spinal column remains extremely sensitive to deforming influences. The skeleton is quite flexible and malleable to change. The growth of the spine continues. The ratio of the size of the spine is almost the same as in an adult.
Skeletal muscles – Weakly developed tendons, fascia, and ligaments. Large muscles of the trunk and limbs are well developed. Small muscle weakness persists, especially in the hands. The child becomes more mobile and strong due to the strengthening of skeletal muscles.
Cardiovascular system – The size of the heart increases 4 times from the moment of birth and by 5 years. Cardiac activity is intensively formed. The pulse is unstable. It changes depending on physical activity.
Brain – The size of the brain is growing. The frontal lobes of the brain are rapidly developing. The differentiation of the nervous elements of the associative zones is being completed. There is a specialization of neurons. The corpus callosum begins to form. The system of connections between neurons becomes more complicated.
Your Baby Growth at 5 Year
The age of 5 to 6 years is considered the period of the first “stretching of the body”. The height of the child has increased by 7 cm since the last age period of 4 years. The intensity of growth of individual parts of the child’s body changes. The length of the limbs and the width of the pelvis and shoulders are growing rapidly in children of both sexes.
The first individual and sex differences in size appear. For example, the shoulders of boys become a little wider and the pelvis narrower. Girls are the opposite. Weight gain over the period from 4 to 5 years still does not exceed 4.5 lbs. This trend will continue for up to 6 years.
Such indicators as the circumference of the chest and head are more stable. Head circumference has not changed since the age of 4. For boys – 51 cm. For girls – 50 cm. The girth of the chest varies. Boys increase breast volume up to 55 cm. Girls up to 52 cm.
5 Year Old Baby Milestones
The next crisis period in a child’s life begins at the age of 5. This feature of development makes raising a child more difficult. Along with the features of the crisis, conditioned inhibitory processes begin to develop and complex mental actions appear. The main nervous processes are improved: arousal, attention, and memory.
The games become more difficult, becoming more interesting and diverse. The physical mobility of the child increases. Children most of the time are on their feet, not distinguished by perseverance, or calmness. Let’s highlight the most significant moments in the development of a child of 5 years.
5 years сrisis The critical moment in the development of the child comes at the age of 5. It is associated with a change in social conditions and the mental development of the child. A calm baby becomes nervous, hysterical, and rebellious with or without reason.
Whims happen sporadically leading to persistent disobedience, frequent resentment, and instability of emotions. The duration of the crisis period is different for each child. It can last from 1 month to 1 year according to the observations of psychologists.
Improvement of differential inhibition All types of conditioned inhibition are formed by the age of 5. Differential inhibition promotes the child's compliance with the rules of behavior. Children begin to obey more often, respond to learning, and do as their parents say.
Prohibitions are well received. The process of inhibition puts a significant load on the nervous system. The child's pulse and breathing quicken. Don't overdo it with this age feature.
Changing ideas about yourself The image of "I" changes significantly at the age of five. Until the age of five, only those qualities that the child has been present in this image. The child begins to think about what he would like to be or does not want to become after 5 years.
There are ideas about undesirable and desirable features in addition to the already existing qualities. For example, a child may ascribe to himself the traits of a cartoon character.
The predominant value of peers Peers become truly important in a child's life from the age of 5. Now the children are beginning to move on to close cooperative play. Appears episodic non-game communication. Children share opinions, information, and knowledge.
A new type of relationship with peers is being formed. This is largely facilitated by the development of speech that improves mutual understanding. Social skills, the baggage of knowledge that the child wants to comprehend, and a high level of sociability lead to the complication of relationships with other children.
Formation of arbitrary memory The child's voluntary memory begins to improve from this age. Now he can memorize 5–6 objects with the help of figurative-visual memory. The volume of auditory verbal memory is growing.
Children 5 years old perfectly memorize phrases by repeating them. They can learn poetry and prose. You can ask them to remember their name, address, and even phone number.
Development of speech The speech of a 5-year-old child continues to improve. The sound side of speech is being improved. Most children correctly pronounce hissing, sonorous and whistling sounds. Phonemic awareness develops. There is a bright intonational expressiveness of speech when reading poems, in a role-playing game, or everyday life.
The grammatical structure of speech is formed. Children are actively engaged in word creation. The vocabulary of the child is enriched. The use of synonyms and antonyms is practiced. Speech becomes more coherent and as logical as possible.
The age of 5 years is characterized by serious changes in personality development. The perception of the image of “I” is transformed. The child’s self-esteem changes. The need to communicate with peers is growing. Great transformations take place in the work of perception, memory, and thinking. Children begin to show learning abilities and concentration.
The crisis period complicates education a little. There is a separation of cognitive tasks from gaming ones. The child is already able to gain new experiences and knowledge outside of play activities.
“Be patient during a child’s crisis. Be calm and do not leave the baby alone with tantrums.”
5 Year Old Baby Health
The risk of posture disorders and curvature of the spine increases at 5 years. A sagging belly or stoop may appear with frequent heavy lifting, improper sitting, or being overweight. There is a risk of hernia (in boys) and flat feet.
Children of this age are still prone to inflammatory processes in the respiratory tract. The frequency of viral diseases increases when visiting kindergartens and other developing institutions. It is necessary to introduce such vaccines for up to 6 years: DTaP, IPV, MMR, and Varicella.
Vitamin fortification is often recommended for nutritional deficiencies. The complex is better to choose the most natural, with easy digestibility, and only reputable companies.
Sleeping Schedules at 5 Year
The sleep schedule is changing. The age of five is the period of the final refusal of sleep during the day. This can manifest itself in episodic or complete disappearance of sleep. Try to keep your child asleep during the day whenever possible. If this reflects badly on the daily routine, then it is better to refuse daytime rest.
The need for daily sleep norms is reduced. A 5-year-old child needs 10-12 hours a day to have a good rest and reboot the nervous system. The period of active wakefulness can last at least 7-8 hours and sometimes a full day.
Children who have not given up sleep during the day can sleep at lunchtime for 1-2 hours. The time for falling asleep in the evening is postponed while maintaining daytime sleep.
Keeping a sleep schedule at 5 years old is quite difficult. The loss of sleep during the day leads to a constant change in the time of falling asleep and waking up. This breaks the structure of the sleep schedule.
Children should fall asleep no later than 10 pm and sleep through the night. Sometimes it is better to refuse to sleep during the day. For example, if it strongly violates generally accepted norms and leads to constant stress for the child and parents.
A child’s sleep is an important physiological need of a growing organism. Severe violations of the norms can lead to irreversible consequences in the work of the nervous system and the psyche of the child.
5 Year Old Feeding
At the age of five, nutrition is complicated by the fact that the child begins to sort out food. He forms his habits and addictions in food. Many children stop eating porridge in favor of a drier and crunchier texture food.
On the menu of a child of 5 years old, there must be at least 60% of vegetable dishes and fresh vegetables. The diet is enriched with fruits, berries, and nuts. A sufficient amount of protein of animal origin, fish, and cereals is required. You need to eat a lot of low-fat dairy products.
Saved 4 meals a day. Snacks are allowed without replacing the main meals. You can start giving lightly fried foods at 5 years old. Smoked meats, marinades, spicy, heavily salted, or canned are not allowed. You can give sweets to a child but in moderation. A child at 5 years old can eat the same as his parents, except for harmful and allergenic foods.
5 Year Old Baby Movements
Changes in the structure and functionality of skeletal muscles contribute to the development of movements. There is progress in the ability to coordinate their movements.
A 5-year-old child walks well, runs, jumps, knows how to maintain balance, conquer obstacles, climb stairs and climb down from them. He easily manipulates objects, catches the ball, throws it at the target, and masters children’s transport.
Children 5 years old better control the small muscles of the hands: they draw well, write letters, and trace along the contour. Movements in the process reach a good level. Toddlers can tie shoelaces, fasten zippers and buttons, and put on socks. They eat on their own, brush their teeth, and even comb their hair.
Self-service movements developed. Children wash themselves, wash their bodies in the shower, rub themselves with a washcloth, and flush the water into the toilet. There is a purposeful formation of movements in the learning process.
Safety Around Child
Children 5 years old know little about the dangers that may lie in waiting for them. Now they are very impressionable and a simple conversation will be enough to explain to the baby what can lead to injuries, and burns and cause irreparable harm to health. Vigilance is formed from childhood.
Moms relax a little and allow a 5-year-old child to play more on their own, increasing the distance between themselves and the child. This greatly increases the risk of injury to the baby on playgrounds. The risk of domestic injury is high when the child is left to himself while the parents are busy with their affairs.
It is very common for children to get lost. This can happen due to the inattention of the parents or the excessive gullibility of the child.
On the road – Teach your child to cross the road correctly, make eye contact with the driver, and not run out on a busy highway. Show an example that it is worth waiting for the green light of a traffic light even if there are no cars.
In the crowd – Teach your baby to always stay close to his mother at public events, city holidays, and fairs. Hold your child’s hand with the active flow of people in different directions. Teach your baby to stay where he is lost.
In transport – Teach your child to discipline in public and private transport. Do not open the windows and doors of the car while driving. It is forbidden to ride without a seatbelt and sit in the front seat.
In the children’s room – Teach your child not to look out the window or open the balcony doors. Make sure the child does not have access to electricity and that sockets are blocked when leaving him alone in the room.
On the beach – Even if a child swims from 6 months, he is not able to conquer the natural aquatic environment. Never let your baby be alone in the water. Always be there and insure his safety.
With peers – Children often quarrel and are not aware of their movements in anger. Keep an eye on how the atmosphere is in the circle of children. Make sure that there are no dangerous objects in their hands if they swear.
What To Schedule Next
Schedule a visit to the pediatrician and vaccinations according to age. You need to have time to make the following doses of vaccines before 6 years: DTaP, IPV, MMR, Varicella. It is recommended to get the Influenza shot if the child is often ill and has not previously been given the flu vaccine. Control the posture of your baby and contact the doctor in time to correct the problems that have arisen.
Plan activities for your child according to their level of preparation. Choose in advance the school to which you plan to send your child and find out the requirements for admission to it. Prepare your child for a year according to the level of the chosen school. Plan extra activities for your child according to their interests and creativity.
Parents Tips and Development Speed Up
A 5-year-old child already clearly shows character traits. He demonstrates willpower, expresses his position, and insists on choosing a certain activity. This is not a six-month-old baby for whom you decide when to sleep, eat, and what to wear. Accept the baby completely.
- Respect the child’s opinion – Always listen to what your baby says. Consider his opinion and respect him. It is now extremely important for a child to remain in demand and heard. This is the key to building the right self-esteem.
- Give the child the right to choose – Train your child to be confident in their decisions. Give him a choice of 2-3 positions. This applies to clothing, leisure, food, and everything else. Let the child know that he must be responsible for his choice.
- Teach order – Have your child clean up their toys after each game. Teach him to wipe the table after himself, throw out the trash, and put pencils and pens in a pencil case. This is useful for the further development of the child.
The process of learning and development of children does not stop. Make sure that the baby has reached the basic norms and skills for age. If there are gaps, they should be fixed immediately. Engage in all-around development every day. Diversify your child’s activities and properly distribute them throughout the day.
5 Development speed ups
- Development of the imagination – Compose fairy tales and describe what the characters look like.
- Creative activity – Praise the child for any results in creativity so as not to cool interest.
- Logic and thinking – Solve simple logical problems, puzzles, and group objects.
- Improvement of fine motor movements – Sort small parts, collect puzzles and draw around the contour.
- Sports – Go in for football, swimming, gymnastics, and rock climbing. Skate, bike, ski.
The development of the child should correspond to his age. Do not seek to master arithmetic, physics, or computer technology. Everything has its time. The child’s brain is capable of certain operations beyond which you should not cross.
All children are different and each has its achievements in intellectual and physical development. If the baby does not know how to do something, then he has not yet matured for this mentally or physically.