Pregnancy is a wonderful and unique time in a woman’s life. The expectant mother can enjoy and prepare for the meeting with the baby in her normal course.
Pregnancy is not always without problems. Some conditions threaten the life and health of mother and child. Unfortunately, 10-20% of pregnancies end in miscarriages.
The causes of the pathology are very different: genetic pathologies of the embryo, infectious diseases, stress, and viral infections. The cause of a miscarriage can be taking the medication without consulting a doctor, or excessive physical activity.
Distinguish between early spontaneous miscarriage (up to 12 weeks) and late spontaneous miscarriage (from 12 to 28 weeks of pregnancy). Many miscarriages occur very early in pregnancy and the woman does not even know she was pregnant.
5 Types of Miscarriage
- Started miscarriage
- Inevitable Miscarriage
- Incomplete miscarriage
- Complete miscarriage
- Missed miscarriage
It is important to know how dangerous a miscarriage is. What to do if a pregnant woman feels unwell. The sooner medical assistance is provided, the greater the chances of maintaining a pregnancy.
What is a dangerous miscarriage
The shorter the gestational age, the lower the risk of complications after a miscarriage. An involuntary miscarriage has almost no consequences.
Curettage of the uterine cavity is required if the gestation period is long or the miscarriage is incomplete. Complications are possible after the procedure. The parts of the embryo or fetal egg remaining in the uterus cause severe bleeding and inflammation.
The loss of an unborn child is a great stress for a woman. Even if the gestational age was very short. The situation is aggravated if the pregnancy was long-awaited. A woman closes in herself, and does not want to communicate with anyone, nothing pleases her.
The emotions that she experiences after the loss of a child are very different: despair, disappointment, and anger. A woman may develop depression after a miscarriage. All this affects family relationships. Quarrels and mutual insults become more frequent between spouses.
What are the types of miscarriage
Pregnancy is not always possible to save. Involuntary miscarriage is a pathology that often occurs in the first half of pregnancy. It can start spontaneously without any intervention.
There are many cases where a woman experiences an involuntary miscarriage without knowing it herself. The fertilized egg separates without symptoms and the miscarriage passes like normal menstruation. It can be longer and stronger.
Modern medicine offers effective methods of treatment, the main thing is not to hesitate. It is equally important to follow all the recommendations of doctors.
Bloody discharge from the vagina, and severe pain, resembling contractions, are the main signs of a miscarriage that has begun. The cause of partial detachment of the fetal egg is an increased tone of the uterus. The size of the uterus corresponds to the gestational age since it exfoliates only in a small area.
The cervix is preserved, and the canal can be partially open or closed. Pregnancy can be saved, but you should consult a doctor as soon as possible. It is very difficult to stop a miscarriage that has begun. It is better to take measures to prevent it.
This type of miscarriage is more complex. The cervix opens. The fertilized egg loses contact with the wall of the uterus and is expelled from its cavity.
The main symptoms are severe pain, resembling contractions, in the lower abdomen, and profuse bleeding from the genital tract. There may be a premature discharge of amniotic fluid.
It is impossible to save the pregnancy in this case, because the connection between the fetus and the uterus is broken. Urgent hospitalization in the gynecological department is required. An inevitable miscarriage ends with a complete or incomplete miscarriage.
Part of the membranes or placenta with incomplete miscarriage remains in the uterine cavity. This can be the cause of bleeding of varying intensity and inflammation of the genital organs. The cervical canal is opened and easily passes a finger during a vaginal examination. The size of the uterus is smaller than the gestational age suggests.
Improper treatment of incomplete miscarriage can lead to infertility and ovarian dysfunction. Gynecologists perform curettage of the walls of the uterine cavity in case of incomplete miscarriage. The functional layer of the endometrium is surgically removed. It recovers before the start of the next menstrual cycle.
Removal of the functional layer of the uterus is a safe procedure. A similar process occurs under the action of hormones during the menstrual cycle. Curettage can cause various complications in some cases: perforation, uterine bleeding, and infection of the uterus.
A complete miscarriage occurs in late pregnancy. The fertilized egg comes out of the uterine cavity. The uterus contracts and the bleeding stops. It is not always possible to state with certainty a complete spontaneous miscarriage. Its signs are not identical and depend on the physiological characteristics of the woman.
A woman may not go to the doctor, she is convinced that “everything worked out.” Spontaneous miscarriage is very rare. The parts of the fetal egg remaining in the uterus must be removed. Otherwise, it threatens with bleeding of varying intensity and infections of the uterine cavity.
Experts advise not to self-medicate and seek help from specialists. Don’t expect yourself to be the exception to the rule. Vaginal examination and ultrasound can accurately diagnose the stages of spontaneous miscarriage.
A pregnancy that met all medical standards but at some point stopped developing is called frozen. The fetus is still in the uterus after death. The highest probability of pathology is in the first trimester. Often missed pregnancy occurs at 3-4, 8-10, and 16-18 weeks of pregnancy.
The symptoms of a missed pregnancy are the same in any trimester. Lack of fetal movements, discharge from the vagina with streaks of blood and pulling pain in the lower abdomen are the main signs. They should not be ignored. Perhaps an increase in body temperature, social weakness, or the disappearance of manifestations of toxicosis.
The cessation of fetal development is difficult to diagnose independently, although certain symptoms indicate the pathology. The basal temperature remains within 37 degrees. A woman can find out about the problem during the next examination by a gynecologist or during an ultrasound scan.
What is a threatened miscarriage
Perhaps a feeling of heaviness in the lower abdomen, in the lower back, or tension of the uterus when there is a threat of miscarriage. There may be bloody discharge from the vagina. The pain is different: pulling, constant or periodic, resembling contractions. The stomach becomes hard and tense.
A woman does not always experience changes, pain, or discomfort with a threatened miscarriage. This can be determined by ultrasound examination. The main signs are that the size of the uterus does not correspond to the gestational age, the fetus has a disturbed heartbeat, and the tone of the uterus is increased.
More often the threat of miscarriage occurs in the second or third week of pregnancy. A woman may still not be aware of her condition at this time. The next critical period is 8-12 weeks of pregnancy. The reason is hormonal disruptions in the body of a woman.
Miscarriage Symptoms You Shouldn’t Ignore
The symptoms of a miscarriage may vary depending on the duration of the pregnancy. The main symptom is vaginal bleeding. There may be profuse spotting that is bright red or brown. Sometimes it’s just a few drops of blood.
Other alarming signals are severe pain in the lower abdomen, lower back pain, and premature discharge of amniotic fluid.
It is necessary to consult a doctor as soon as possible if a pregnant woman is concerned about similar symptoms. They do not necessarily indicate that a miscarriage has begun. You need to consult with a gynecologist to make sure that everything is fine with the baby.
Pregnant women should be aware of the symptoms that do not threaten anything. These are mild spasms, weakness, and slight dizziness. There may be a feeling of heaviness on one side of the abdomen. This is not scary because it is due to the enlargement of the uterus.
Do not worry if there may be slight bleeding on the days of the expected menstruation. This is implantation bleeding.
Features of recovery after a miscarriage
Physical recovery after a miscarriage takes several days. Seek medical attention if heavy bleeding, pain, and fever persist. Menstruation is restored within 4-6 weeks. Sexual life can be continued for two weeks after the cessation of bleeding. Tampons should be discarded within 14 days.
Emotional renewal can take several months. A woman can experience different emotions: sadness, despair, despondency, anger, and even guilt. There may be depression. The woman does not want to communicate with anyone and nothing gives her joy.
There is no single recipe for coping with loss. Do not rush things, you need to give yourself time to cry out grief. The pain of loss will pass with time. You can seek advice from a doctor or psychologist.
A new pregnancy after a miscarriage can be planned from the first menstrual cycle. You should pay attention to the psychological state of the woman and her emotional readiness. You can consult with your doctor who will tell you the best time for a new pregnancy.
Prevention of the threat of miscarriage in the early stages
It is not always possible to stop a miscarriage that has begun. It is better to follow simple recommendations that will help prevent a threat to the life of both mother and child. Conscious pregnancy planning is the best prevention of the threat of miscarriage in the early stages.
It is important to give up bad habits – smoking and drinking alcohol. If there are chronic diseases, you need to undergo preventive treatment and keep them under control. Experts recommend that a woman planning a pregnancy undergo a medical examination. This will make sure that everything is fine with the health of the expectant mother.
It is recommended to use folic acid during pregnancy planning. In no case should you self-medicate colds and SARS. It is necessary to avoid stress, and conflicts and follow all the recommendations of the doctor.
Walking in the fresh air, a balanced diet, good sleep, and a lack of stress will benefit the expectant mother. Following these tips will help you bear and give birth to a healthy baby!